Emissions from IPPC Industry: Quantifying Pollution Trends and Regulatory Effectiveness

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Resource or Project Abstract

The 1996 EC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) licensing (96/61/EC) integrated the regulation of emissions to air, water and land and the management of wastes and noise into single licences. Integration of impacts across different media and harmonisation across Member States were intended to ensure high environmental standards throughout the EU and avoid the shifting of environmental pressures to less-regulated media or countries. The IPPC Directive was formally transposed into Irish law through the Protection of the Environment Act, 2003. However, a number of EU Member States, including Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom, had implemented similar, though less comprehensive, forms of integrated licensing since the early 1990s. In Ireland, Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) licences had been issued since 1994, following the 1992 EPA Act. This Act consolidated the patchwork of environmental regulation and enforcement that previously existed, typical of EU Member States at that time (Silvo et al., 2002; Gray et al., 2007). Previously, industries were regulated by Ireland?s 33 local authorities through the issue of Single Media Licence (SML) discharge permits, in accordance with the Local Government (Water Pollution) Act, 1977 (amended 1990) and the Air Pollution Act, 1987. A primary aim of this study was to develop environmental performance indicators to interpret reported emissions data. Licensed installations report a diverse range of air and water emissions to the EPA Mass annual emissions data submitted annually in AERs provide the basis for this study. AER emission summaries focus on a suite of 28 parameters, 16 pertaining to water emissions and 12 pertaining to air emissions These represent the minimum universal reporting requirement across all sectors, but other sectors have additional requirements on an ad-hoc basis in AERs. This study focussed on four diverse IPPC-regulated sectors: 1. Food & Drink manufacturing (Food & Drink); 2. Power Generation (Power Gen); 3. Pharmaceutical manufacturing (Pharma); and 4. (Non-pharmaceutical) chemical manufacturing (Chem).

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Contact Information for This Resource

Dr. David Styles
Trinity College Dublin

Prof. Michael B. Jones
Trinity College Dublin

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Data, Files, Information Objects Related To This Project Resource

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Attachment Name and Download Link
Offline Print Quality Version    ERC_16_Styles_IPPCEmissions_prn.pdf  (3.08 Mb)
Project Report Optimised For Online Viewing    ERC_16_Styles_IPPCEmissions_web.pdf  (1.25 Mb)

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Author(s)Styles, D. Jones, B.M.
Title Of WebsiteSecure Archive For Environmental Research Data
Publication InformationEmissions from IPPC Industry: Quantifying Pollution Trends and Regulatory Effectiveness
Name of OrganisationEnvironmental Protection Agency Ireland
Electronic Address or URL https://eparesearch.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=fbed2e19-266a-102e-a0a4-f81fb11d7d1c
Unique Identifierfbed2e19-266a-102e-a0a4-f81fb11d7d1c
Date of AccessLast Updated on SAFER: 2024-05-21

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Styles, D. Jones, B.M.   "Emissions from IPPC Industry: Quantifying Pollution Trends and Regulatory Effectiveness". Associated datasets and digitial information objects connected to this resource are available at: Secure Archive For Environmental Research Data (SAFER) managed by Environmental Protection Agency Ireland https://eparesearch.epa.ie/safer/resource?id=fbed2e19-266a-102e-a0a4-f81fb11d7d1c (Last Accessed: 2024-05-21)


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Access Information For This Resource

SAFER-Data Display URL https://eparesearch.epa.ie/safer/iso19115/display?isoID=183
Resource KeywordsIPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention Control AER licensing
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project Code2006-FS-NE-38-M4
EPA/ERTDI/STRIVE Project ThemeEnvironmental Technologies
Resource Availability: Any User Can Download Files From This Resource
Limitations on the use of this Resourcet is crucial that any 3rd party use of the information provided is properly cited when used in any: publication, website, web blog, presentation, report, technical report, or article. An automated citation is provided below and should be used as a guide for the proper citation for this resource.
Number of Attached Files (Publicly and Openly Available for Download): 2
Project Start Date Monday 1st January 2007 (01-01-2007)
Earliest Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Monday 1st January 2007 (01-01-2007)
Most Recent Recorded Date within any attached datasets or digital objects Saturday 1st May 2010 (01-05-2010)
Published on SAFERMonday 11th October 2010 (11-10-2010)
Date of Last EditMonday 11th October 2010 at 11:36:19 (11-10-2010)
Datasets or Files Updated On Monday 11th October 2010 at 10:36:56 (11-10-2010)

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Geographical and Spatial Information Related To This Resource

Description of Geographical Characteristics of This Project or Dataset
This is a desk study. The report looked at IPPC in Ireland and there is no explicit geographical reference.

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Supplementary Information About This Resource

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Lineage information about this project or dataset
This is the End of Project report for a 3-year fellowship entitled Emissions to Air and Water funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Science, Technology, Research and Innovation for the Environment (STRIVE) programme. The primary objectives of this project, as outlined in the original proposal, were to: 1. Construct a database of emissions time series for installations and sectors, based on air and water emissions data reported to the EPA by installations licensed under the Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC) regime; 2. Develop and apply environmental performance indicators based on reported emissions data; 3. Model emission trends in relation to economic output, and isolate the effect of IPPC licensing compared with business as usual; and 4. Identify, using case studies, specific technologies and practices, in each sector, that reduce emissions.
Supplementary Information
Emissions reporting is becoming more comprehensive, especially with the recent introduction of new PRTR-compliant reporting templates. However, there is still a considerable degree of variability in the completeness of emissions reporting across installations and sectors. Whilst energy use can be used to estimate pollution loading for some installations in the absence of good emissions reporting, a number of major pollutants cannot be readily estimated by regulators. It would be useful to generate full LCA case studies for a few installations from each IPPC sector, identifying the main sources of environmental pressures and the proportion of those pressures accounted for within the gate-togate scope of current emissions reporting. This could lead to the identification of effective pollution avoidance options. In particular, it would be useful to compare pharmaceutical production in traditional chemical and new biopharma plants. The case studies referred to above could also be used to inform the development of targeted verification methodologies for monitoring and reporting of the most environmentally significant emissions. This study identified a major reporting problem in relation to fugitive NMVOC emissions. Where emissions cannot be monitored directly, the EPA could issue more guidance on the most appropriate and reliable estimation methods Further work is needed to explore the potential, and enforcement mechanisms, for less prescriptive but rigorous performance-oriented environmental regulation. In particular, there may be differences between sectors in terms of responsiveness to regulation through ELVs versus environmental performance measurement and reporting.
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